Monday, May 18, 2020
Clara Barton, who had been a schoolteacher and the first woman to be a clerk at the US Patent Office, served in the Civil War nursing soldiers and distributing supplies for the sick and wounded. She spent four years tracking down missing soldiers at the end of the war. Clara Barton established the first permanent American Red Cross society and headed the organization until 1904. Selected Clara Barton Quotations Ã¢â¬ ¢ An institution or reform movement that is not selfish, must originate in the recognition of some evil that is adding to the sum of human suffering, or diminishing the sum of happiness. Ã¢â¬ ¢ I may be compelled to face danger, but never fear it, and while our soldiers can stand and fight, I can stand and feed and nurse them. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The conflict is one thing Ive been waiting for. Im well and strong and youngÃ¢â¬âyoung enough to go to the front. If I cannot be a soldier, Ill help soldiers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ What could I do but go with them [soldiers of the Civil War], or work for them and my country? The patriot blood of my father was warm in my veins. Ã¢â¬ ¢ A ball had passed between my body and the right arm which supported him, cutting through the sleeve and passing through his chest from shoulder to shoulder. There was no more to be done for him and I left him to his rest. I have never mended that hole in my sleeve. I wonder if a soldier ever does mend a bullet hole in his coat? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Oh northern mothers wives and sisters, all unconscious of the hour, would to Heaven that I could bear for you the concentrated woe which is so soon to follow, would that Christ would teach my soul a prayer that would plead to the Father for grace sufficient for you, God pity and strengthen you every one. Ã¢â¬ ¢ I dont know how long it has been since my ear has been free from the roll of a drum. It is the music I sleep by, and I love it ... I shall remain here while anyone remains, and do whatever comes to my hand. I may be compelled to face danger, but never fear it, and while our soldiers can stand and fight, I can stand and feed and nurse them. Ã¢â¬ ¢ You glorify the women who made their way to the front to reach you in your misery, and nurse you back to life. You called us angels. Who opened the way for women to go and make it possible? ... For every womans hand that ever cooled your fevered brows, staunched your bleeding wounds, gave food to your famished bodies, or water to your parching lips, and called back life to your perishing bodies, you should bless God for Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Frances D. Gage and their followers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ I may sometimes be willing to teach for nothing, but if paid at all, I shall never do a mans work for less than a mans pay. Ã¢â¬ ¢ [T]he door that nobody else will go in at, seems always to swing open widely for me. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Everybodys business is nobodys business, and nobodys business is my business. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The surest test of discipline is its absence. Ã¢â¬ ¢ It is wise statesmanship which suggests that in time of peace we must prepare for war, and it is no less a wise benevolence that makes preparation in the hour of peace for assuaging the ills that are sure to accompany war. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Economy, prudence, and a simple life are the sure masters of need, and will often accomplish that which, their opposites, with a fortune at hand, will fail to do. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Your belief that I am a Universalist is as correct as your greater belief that you are one yourself, a belief in which all who are privileged to possess it rejoice. In my case, it was a great gift, like St. Paul, I was born free, and saved the pain of reaching it through years of struggle and doubt. My father was a leader in the building of the church in which Hosea Ballow preached his first dedication sermon. Your historic records will show that the old Huguenot town of Oxford, Mass. erected one of, if not the first Universalist Church in America. In this town I was born; in this church I was reared. In all its reconstructions and remodelings I have taken a part, and I look anxiously for a time in the near future when the busy world will let me once more become a living part of its people, praising God for the advance in the liberal faith of the religions of the world today, so largely due to the teachings of this belief. Ã¢â¬ ¢ I have an almost complete disregard of precedent and a faith in the possibility of something better. It irritates me to be told how things always have been done... I defy the tyranny of precedent. I cannot afford the luxury of a closed mind. I go for anything new that might improve the past. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Others are writing my biography, and let it rest as they elect to make it. I have lived my life, well and ill, always less well than I wanted it to be but it is, as it is, and as it has been; so small a thing, to have had so much about it!
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Civil rights are the rights of individuals to be protected against unfair treatment based on certain personal characteristics like race, gender, age, or disability. Governments enact civil rights laws to protect people from discrimination in social functions such as education, employment, housing, and access to public accommodations. Civil Rights Key Takeaways Civil rights protect people from unequal treatment based on their individual characteristics like race and gender.Governments create civil rights laws to ensure fair treatment of groups that have traditionally been the target of discrimination.Civil rights differ from civil liberties, which are specific freedoms of all citizens as listed and ensured in a binding document, such as the U.S. Bill of Rights, and interpreted by the courts. Civil Rights Definition Civil rights are a set of rightsÃ¢â¬âestablished by lawÃ¢â¬âthat protect the freedoms of individuals from being wrongly denied or limited by governments, social organizations, or other private individuals. Examples of civil rights include the rights of people to work, study, eat, and live where they choose. To turn a customer away from a restaurant solely because of his or her race, for example, is a civil rights violation under United States laws.Ã Ã Civil rights laws are often enacted in order to guarantee fair and equal treatment for groups of people who have historically faced discrimination. In the United States, for example, several civil rights laws focus on Ã¢â¬Å"protected classesÃ¢â¬ of people who share characteristics such as race, gender, age, disability, or sexual orientation. While now taken for granted in most other western democracies, consideration for civil rights has been deteriorating, according to international monitoring agencies. Since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the global war on terror has driven many governments to sacrifice civil rights in the name of security. Civil Rights vs. Civil Liberties Civil rights are often confused with civil liberties, which are the freedoms guaranteed to the citizens or residents of a country by an overriding legal covenant, like the U.S. Bill of Rights, and interpreted by the courts and lawmakers. The First AmendmentÃ¢â¬â¢s right to free speech is an example of a civil liberty. Both civil rights and civil liberties differ subtly from human rights, those freedoms belonging to all people regardless of where they live, such as freedom from slavery, torture, and religious persecution. International Perspective and Civil Rights Movements Virtually all nations deny some civil rights to some minority groups either by law or by custom. In the United States, for example, women continue to face discrimination in jobs traditionally held exclusively by men. While the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations in 1948, embodies civil rights, the provisions are not legally binding. Thus, there is no worldwide standard. Instead, individual nations tend to respond differently to pressure for enacting civil rights laws. Historically, when a significant portion of a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s people feel they are treated unfairly, civil rights movements emerge. While most often associated with the American Civil Rights Movement, similar notable efforts have occurred elsewhere. South Africa The South African system of government-sanctioned racial segregation known as apartheid came to an end after a high-profile civil rights movement that began in the 1940s. When the white South African government responded by jailing Nelson Mandela and most of its other leaders, the anti-apartheid movement lost strength until the 1980s. Under pressure from the United States and other Western nations, the South African government released Nelson Mandela from prison and lifted its ban on the African National Congress, the major black political party, in 1990. In 1994, Mandela was elected the first black president of South Africa. India The struggle of the Dalits in India has similarities to both the American Civil Rights Movement and the South African anti-apartheid movement. Formerly known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Untouchables,Ã¢â¬ the Dalits belong to the lowest social group in IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Hindu caste system. Though they make up one-sixth of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s population, the Dalits were forced to live as second-class citizens for centuries, facing discrimination in access to jobs, education, and allowed marriage partners. After years of civil disobedience and political activism, the Dalits won victories, highlighted by the election of K. R. Narayanan to the presidency in 1997. Serving as president until 2002, Narayanan stressed the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s obligations towards the Dalits and other minorities and called attention to the other many social ills of caste discrimination. Northern Ireland After the division of Ireland in 1920, Northern Ireland witnessed violence between the ruling British Protestant majority and members of the native Irish Catholic minority. Demanding an end to discrimination in housing and employment opportunities, Catholic activists launched marches and protests modeled after the American Civil Rights Movement. In 1971, the internment without trial of over 300 Catholic activists by the British government sparked an escalated, often-violent civil disobedience campaign headed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). The turning point in the struggle came on Bloody Sunday, January 30, 1972, when 14 unarmed Catholic civil rights marchers were shot dead by the British army. The massacre galvanized the British people. Since Bloody Sunday, the British Parliament has instituted reforms protecting the civil rights of Northern Irish Catholics. Sources and Further Reference Hamlin, Rebecca. Civil Rights. Encyclopedia Britannica.. U.Civil Rights Act of 1964S. EEOC.Shah, Anup. Human Rights in Various Regions. Global Issues (October 1, 2010).Dooley, Brian. Black and Green: The Fight for Civil Rights in Northern Ireland and Black America. (Excerpts) Yale University.Bloody Sunday: What happened on Sunday 30 January 1972? BBC News (March 14, 2019).
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, most of them knew as Ã¢â¬Å"MahatmaÃ¢â¬ which means Ã¢â¬Å"Great SoulÃ¢â¬ . He was born in Porbandar, Gujarti Province in North West India, on 2nd October 1865. He was born as the third son to a wealthy family. His fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s name is Karamchand Gandhi and he was the Chief Minister of Porbandar Regional Government. His Mother, Puttibai, was a Hindu of the tenets is non-injury to living beings, vegetarianism, fasting and mutual broad-mindedness at very tender age. His ancestors belonged to the Vaishya (Trading) class, the third of the previous castes of Hinduism. His Father and grandfather were both reputed as much for honesty and loyal service as for their unbending sense of honor. Little Mohandas Gandhi was an ordinary student. He was shy and soft spoken. In India, they are many religion books such as Ramayana, Bhagavath Gita and Manusmiriti. They all talk about the ancient history of India. At the age of 13 he got married. His wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s name is Kasturba. It is an arranged marriage and she gave completely supported to his work. They had four sons. He passed the matriculation exam at Samaldas College of Bhavanager. At age 18, in September 1888, Gandhi was left India for his higher studies to London without his family in order to qualify as a Barrister. He started his studies in University College London. He attempted to make himself into an English gentleman. He bought new suits, fine turned his English accent, learned French and took violin and dance lessons to fit intoShow MoreRelatedDr. Martin Luther King919 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLuther King Junior and Mahatma Gandhi both struggled, I think that the charisma in them influenced social change, because of their tactics used, like non-violence. Martin Luther King Junior and Gandhi both functions as charismatic leaders and influenced others with their fascinatingly positive attitudes. It was hard for them to get there message s and world view s across but they remained strong and preserved through their struggles, no matter how tough things got. Gandhi transmitted his messageRead MoreMahatma Gandhi And The Equality Of Human Rights1078 Words Ã | Ã 5 PagesMahatma Gandhi was a man that changed history for the equality of human rights with a non-violence movement that impacted philosophy. He proved out to reach equality without provoking the injustice which spoke greater lengths than violence ever did. His teachings remain to pronounce a new form to seek justice. He was the man who flourished a new way of understanding the value of the soul instead of the body which taught us all the principles of nonviolence through organizations that led into positiveRead MoreThe Library Of The Sabarmati Ashram1058 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesworking in the archives of the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad, I came across a fascinating letter to MK Gandhi sent by 11 young women of Calcutta. The letter was undated, but it appeared to have been written in January, 1939. It was addressed to Ã¢â¬Å"Most revered MahatmajiÃ¢â¬ , and was signed individually by the 11 women, all Hindus by their names. The letter was written in protest against an essay writ ten by Gandhi for his journal, Harijan. GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s article, said these women, was Ã¢â¬Å"not very inspiringÃ¢â¬ , since itRead MoreEssay about Information and opinions about Gandhis death1978 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The future generations will scarcely believe that such a man in flesh and blood, had tread this earth.Ã¢â¬ Albert Einstein Mahatma GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s real name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was born in 1869 at Porbandar in the state of Gujarat in INDIA. His fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s name was Karamchand Gandhi and his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s name was Putlibai. He was the youngest in the family of one sister and three brothers. His father belonged to the family of grocers but himself was a minister in the court of a localRead MoreSocial Intelligence and Life Skills2188 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE AND LIFE SKILLS OF SECONDARY TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS The process of education is considered so important in our society. It has become an integral part of our lives in the twenty first century with a special focus on life skills. As we are living in a society in which special skills, in particular, social abilities are needed to build and to maintain the community. People have evolved special competencies to allow them to survive and to reproduceRead MoreFreedom Fighters of India11786 Words Ã |Ã 48 PagesSeptember 1923 and at 35 years of age, was the youngest man to be elected the President of the Congress.Ã Gopal Krishna Gokhale Gopal Krishna Gokhale was one of the moderate leaders of the Indian National Congress. He was the political Guru of Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the nation. He also presided over the annual session of the Congress at Benaras in the year 1905. He was also opposed to the entry of the extremists in the Congress.Ã Jawaharlal Nehru Pt Jawaharlal Nehru was one of the importantRead MoreAnalysis Of The Bhagavad Gita 1389 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe theory and parallelism between the two elements which are: word and action to gain the highest ultimate knowledge a human being can obtain here on earth. Many iconic thinkers to name a few have been inspired by the Gita; such would include Mahatma Gandhi, Albert Einstein and Albert Schweitzer. Some of the most important concepts that will need to be taken into consideration during this investigation include Karma, Selflessness, and selfless service within one to explore the ultimate theory ofRead MoreRealism in Poetry of Rabindranath Tagore3311 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesintegral whole, the Rishi, the Gurudev. His active literary career extended over a period of 65 years. He wrote probably the largest number of lyrics ever attempted by any poet. He mused and wrote and traveled and talked untiringly. Tagore, just to Mahatma Gandhi and Sri Aurobindo, has been the supreme inspi ration to millions in modern India. Rabindranath Tagore was well aware of moral and religious consideration, social political and environmental conditions of his time. Man was a centre point in hisRead MoreTruman1435 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesyear-old pastor of a Baptist church emerged as the movementÃ¢â¬â¢s leading spokesmanÃ¢â¬ ¦Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin Luther King, Jr. * KingÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy utilized the principle of civil disobedience preached by Henry David Thoreau and practiced by Mahatma Gandhi. * He studied the nonviolent protest practiced by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and followed the call to mass action demonstrated by A. Phillip Randolph. * Evil must meet good, hate with Christian love, and violence with peacefulRead MoreHealthy Racial Identity Development Among Older White Youth1952 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesHealthy racial identity development among older white youth is a bit more complex. Often, white students must come to understand that society attaches meaning to their whiteness and that they have a choice about how to be white in a multicultural society. The American Civil Rights Movement was a movement of the people. Black and white, male and female, Jew and Christian, rich and poor -- ordinary people who came together across differences to advance this nation s core value of equality and demand
Pre-marital sex, young Catholics know it is wrong. So why do they do it? Most teenagers have heard or coined the phrases Ã¢â¬Å"everyoneÃ¢â¬ s doing it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If you loved me youÃ¢â¬ d do itÃ¢â¬ and also Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬ s okay I have a condom. We will write a custom essay sample on Premarital Sex: A Morally Issue or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ã¢â¬ Sex before marriage can be harmful to your body, your future, but the scariest of all your eternity. In this paper we shall look more into the Catholic point of view on pre-marital bliss. The purpose of sex is to unite a married couple as one loving body in consummating a marriage, to leave the possibility of procreation open, and to and to educate a child. The purpose of sex is to unite a married couple as one loving body. This is because GodÃ¢â¬ s intention in creating the first man and woman was for them to love and create more men and women. To do so a married couple must join as one loving body or to have sexual intercourse. In having intercourse the first time in a marriage you are consummating the marriage therefore making the marriage official in the eyes of God. The Catechism of the Catholic Church says: Ã¢â¬Å"the union of man and woman in marriage is a way of imitating the flesh in the creators generosity and fecundity: Ã¢â¬ËTherefore . . . and they become one fleshÃ¢â¬ (Gen4:24) All human generations proceed from this unionÃ¢â¬ (Catechism 2335). Sex is meant for mature individuals who are prepared to face the consequences of sex. Two of the biggest fears in premarital sex are STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) and unwanted pregnancy. A married individual normally does not have to deal with such problems. This is because at the average age of marriage most STDs are not common. Second, in a marriage a couple normally wants a child to care for. However, teenagers do not want these responsibilities. Which leads to common use of contraceptives in teen sex. Sex is meant to leave an opening for procreation. Contraceptives are commonly used in premarital sex. These are used to prevent unwanted pregnancy and STDs. How can one use a condom and leave an opening for a child to be conceived? The Bible says Ã¢â¬Å"God blessed man and woman with the words: Ã¢â¬ËBe fruitful and multiplyÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ (GS 50). Condom, the most popular choice for a contraceptive, is a latex cover for the male phallus, which prevents the sperm from entering the vagina and making itÃ¢â¬ s way to the egg. In humans sexual reproduction is done through intercourse. When the sperm meets the egg. When a condom does fail there is a high risk of catching a STD or having an unwanted pregnancy. In the chance of a pregnancy there are alternatives such as raising the child on your own, giving it up for abortion, and the sinful way out, having an abortion. Abortion is a mortal sin because it is the death of an unborn child. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: Ã¢â¬Å"By its very nature the institution of marriage and married love is ordered to the procreation and education of the offspring and is in them that it finds their crowning gloryÃ¢â¬ (1652, 460). Raising a child on your own is not impossible however it is not easy. Finally, Sex is meant to aid in educating a child. Without sex there is no child. In the cases of teen-parents, it is not probable that the child will grow up with the proper education. This is most probable because the teens themselves are still learning. In the instances of single parent parenting, the education can be very tedious. It would be tedious because the single parent would have to play the role of the mother and the father as well. Such examples prove that sex inside of marriage is the simplest choice. One would not have as many issues to face and will be able to raise a family almost problem free. In parenting there will naturally be problems too, however when an adult is there to help their children they have the personal experience and moral guidance needed to lead the offspring off on the right foot. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: Ã¢â¬ Parents are the principle and first educators of their children. In this sense the fundamental task of marriage and family is to be at the service of lifeÃ¢â¬ (1653, 461). When your child comes to you and tell you that their boy/girlfriend is pressuring them for sex you can be able to tell them to abstain. Ã¢â¬Å"Abstinence is the only safe and morally correct form of contraceptionÃ¢â¬ . In conclusion, sex is meant to unite a married couple as one loving body in consummating a marriage, to leave the possibility of procreation open and to and to educate a child. The previous information has shown sex to only be moral and truly worry free in a marriage. Ã¢â¬Å"Let the Hebrews marry, at the age fit for it, virgins that are free, and born of good parents. But if the damsel be convicted, as having been corrupted, and is one of the common people, let her be stoned, because she did not preserve her virginity till she were lawfully married; but if she were the daughter of a priest let her be burnt aliveÃ¢â¬ (Pastor David, Virginity/Marriage, 1) How to cite Premarital Sex: A Morally Issue, Papers
Question: Discuss about the Spreadsheet As An Accounting Tool. Answer: Introduction: This report is based on management accounting. The benefits of spreadsheet have been analyzed in this report. This report also tells that how it is better then paper accounting work. Spreadsheet: It is a computer application that has been used by the user to organize, analyze, manage and record data in tabular format. This application has been prepared as computerized simulation of paper work of accounting (Garrison, Noreen, EBrewer McGowan, 2010). Accounting tool: Spreadsheet application has replaced paper work on accounting. People prefer the spreadsheet now as they found it more handy and easy to calculate and data and gather the required information. The provided result is also impressive. Through this application, interpretation can easily be done. If one mistake is done than accountant needs not to change the whole report, only change in that figure could offer the perfect result (Kaplan Atkinson, 2015). Advantages of Spreadsheet: It is the handiest approach to do the computation now days. This application has been prepared to offer the users most correct data in some seconds. It separates the different figures and data appropriately and also help the accountant to analyze the correct result. Many tools and formulas could be contained in this application and could be computed very rapidly. This application could be used by anybody as the process of it is very simple. Conclusion: Hence it could be said that spreadsheet is one of the easiest application to compute the accounting figure. This application has been prepared as computerized simulation of paper work of accounting. This application has been prepared to offer the users most correct data in some seconds. This application could be used by anybody as the process of it is very simple. References: Kaplan, R. S., Atkinson, A. A. (2015).Advanced management accounting. PHI Learning. Garrison, R. H., Noreen, E. W., Brewer, P. C., McGowan, A. (2010). Managerial accounting. Issues in Accounting Education, 25(4), 792-793.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
According to companies that perform such tests, they are done to establish the safety of products and ingredients. However, no law requires that cosmetics products be tested on animals. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Ã¢â¬Å"urges cosmetic manufacturers to conduct whatever tests are appropriate to establish that their cosmetics are safeÃ¢â¬ but Ã¢â¬Å"does not specifically mandate animal testing for cosmetic safety. Ã¢â¬ Likewise, products regulated by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) do not have to be tested on animals. A summary of the CPSCÃ¢â¬â¢s animal-testing policy, as published in the Federal Register, states that Ã¢â¬Å"it is important to keep in mind that neither the FHSA [Federal Hazardous Substances Act] nor the CommissionÃ¢â¬â¢s regulations require any firm to perform animal tests. The statute and its implementing regulations only require that a product be labeled to reflect the hazards associated with that product. Ã¢â¬ (Cosmetics. ) There are many different procedures that cosmetic and pharmaceutical companies initiate to test their ingredients on animals. It is estimated that 2 to 4 million animals, including cats, dogs, rodents, monkeys, and others, are tortured in laboratories each year in the United States. Alix Fano, the Director of the Campaign for Responsible Transplation, describes how tests such as the chemical ingestion tests usually cause the organs to become damaged and dysfunctional. He also gives further examples including spinal cord injection testing, where scientists will first intentionally paralyze the animal, and then attempt to undo the damage, but usually fail and the subject is permanently paralyzed. The major tests cosmetic companies do animal testing is for eyes and skin irritation, toxicity and Lethal Dose 50 percent, inhalation test for perfumes. Draize (eye) injection tests attempt to cure blindness or eye disorders, but almost always leave the animal completely blind. However, what is the point of this if the testing on eyes is faulty and caustic chemicals can be determined by chemistry. Humans can easily determine that a chemical is bad for the eyes simply by studying the pure chemistry involved. Neurotoxicity and lethal dosage tests purposely inject the animal with deadly chemicals to see how much it can endure before convulsing or dying. Lethal dose is the most common form of animal-poisoning study. Scientists actually use deadly chemicals on purpose to see what effect it will have on the animal, causing extreme suffering for the subject and leaving it either disfigured or dead. Ã¢â¬Å"Test animals may develop tumors or other nasty conditions and are often killed intentionally at some point in the test so scientists can examine the animalÃ¢â¬â¢s innards for signs of damageÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Manimal and the CosmeticsÃ¢â¬ ). This inexplicit harm to animals is meaningless and cruel, producing results that are often not applicable to human advancements, because animals have different genetic compositions and respond to chemicals in ways that greatly contrast the effects seen on human subjects. A multitude of available alternatives for animal testing are both more sensible and efficient. Another kind of test performed to establish what skin care products are safe for humans which is called the skin irritancy test. This is a process that involves shaving the animals and placing chemicals on their raw bare skin and covering the skin with adhesive plaster. The animals become immobilized in restraining devices to prevent them from struggling. This form of testing is probably by far the worst of its kind. The animals that undergo tests just for a new lipstick or perfume live in tiny, crowded cages in fear of pain and suffering. To determine the toxic consequences of a single, short-term exposure to a product or chemical the animals that undergo test, the substance is administered to animals (usually rodents) in extremely high doses via force-feeding, forced inhalation, and/or absorption through the skin. Animals in the highest dose groups may endure severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, convulsions, seizures, paralysis, and bleeding from the nose, mouth, and genitals before they ultimately die. (Research Is ) For the Inhalation toxicity test rats are either placed in sealed cages or squeezed into restraint tubes pumped full of gas, forcing the animal to breathe in the vapors of the test substance, usually for 4-6 hours per day for either one-day, several weeks, or months. Animals are examined to determine whether breathing the substance has toxic effects. Animals have the ability to experience sensation or feelings. Animals caught in the web of scientific research suffer enormously both physically and psychologically. A major ethical issue with animal testing is that it involves pain, suffering and discomfort under some circumstances. Researchers do address the potential for pain by measures to minimize it when possible. They arent able to completely prevent any pain from occurring. Where possible, they will use anesthetic but for some types of testing, using a pain reliever can cause an interaction with the drug being tested. This means for some testing they will not try to help the animal with their pain. Laboratory animals that escape outright physical pain and discomfort are almost always subjected to isolation, depression and anxiety. In fact the worst evil we inflict upon animals condemned to scientific research may be the act of removing them from the natural habitat, or breeding them in captivity, and then placing them in the artificial environment of a laboratory cage, where they have no hope of having the kind of life nature intended for them. Animal skin and organs are not the same as human skin and organs; therefore, cosmetic testing on animal skin and organs is irrelevant to human skin and organs. Animals have different biological systems than humans do therefore the tests cannot be as accurate. Not only is animal testing inhumane it is inaccurate. Animal tests do not predict antidotes for product toxicity and do not keep toxic substances off the market and do not accurately measure human health hazards. They only determine that the product is toxic to the animal it was tested on. Animals have different biological systems than humans do therefore the tests cannot be as accurate. Animal skin and organs are not the same as human skin and organs; therefore, cosmetic testing on animal skin and organs are irrelevant to human skin and organs. Scientists and Doctors have taken some brain cells and blood cells from a Human that was HIV positive and directly injected them into a Chimpanzees brain. They found out that the Chimps are not affected by the HIV because of the difference in blood cells. So they are unable to find an antidote for HIV. So if we cant use Chimps the most closely related mammal to humans to find a cure for diseases then what make people think that we will be able to by testing on animals like bunnies and rats that have practically no similarities to humans? (Chimpanzees Test Results That DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Apply to Humans. ) Test results cannot be extrapolated from a mouse to a rat, let alone from a rat to a human. Each species reacts differently to various substances. Moreover, test results can be affected by the age and sex of the animals tested their housing and nutritional conditions and how the compound is administered. While the reliability of animal testing varies greatly and is often completely inaccurate when applied to humans, non-animal testing methods lead to beneficial results. Besides saving countless animal lives, alternatives to animal tests are efficient and reliableÃ¢â¬ ¦non-animal methods often take less time to complete, cost a fraction of what the animal experiments they replace cost, and are not overwhelmed with species differences that make estimation difficult or almost impossible. Animal tests such as the 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test can be replaced with toxicity tests on human cell cultures. The chemicals in cosmetics are then added to the cell culture. A special dye that reacts differently to dead and live cells is added. The researchers then analyze the results with a computer to determine the risk a chemical will have on the cells. Cell cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s form of testing has established itself as one of the successful alternative to the use of animals, in vivo. Few of the important areas where cell culture can replace animal experimentation are tests conducted for chemical absorption by skin, phytotoxicity, and skin corrosion. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is known to have approved these tissue culture techniques as an alternative to the use of animals. (Laura Valderrama-Ferrando pg. 4) Human skin model tests like the Epiderm test, replaces skin corrosion tests on rabbits. Donated body parts can be used to test chemical rate of skin penetration. Also, the study of human populations, human DNA studies on computers, sophisticated scanning technology, and even human test volunteers can be replacements for animal tests (Ã¢â¬Å"Meeting ReportÃ¢â¬ ). Multiple substances that are known to be harmful to humans, portray no negative effect on animals, who are supposedly used to test the substanceÃ¢â¬â¢s safety for humans. Ã¢â¬Å"Of the compounds known not to cause cancer in humans, 19 do cause cancer in rodentsÃ¢â¬ ¦[also,] cigarette smoke, asbestos, arsenic, benzene, alcohol, and class fibers are all safe to ingest, according to animal studiesÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Testing Without TortureÃ¢â¬ ). Animal test results cannot guarantee the safety of substances, because the differences between animals and humans cause each to react to substances in various ways. There is no reason for scientists to discover if a chemical will kill a lab rat, if it has no relation to weather or not the chemical will cause harm to a human. Since alternative tests are conducted on human DNA, they produce undeniably better results. Alternatives have led to several monumental scientific discoveries and safety tests, further exemplifying how animal testing procedures are unnecessarily harmful. A company that tests on animals may claim it no longer uses certain tests, when in fact a very similar, equally cruel test is being performed under a different name. Also, some companies publicize that they have put large amounts of money into efforts to find alternatives to animal testing. However, viable humane alternatives already exist and are being used by hundreds of companies to make safe and effective cosmetic. Cosmetic testing is not only abusive to animals, but also highly expensive. Alternative testing could retain the same amount of data, and is less expensive and not cruel to animals. Alternative testing methods are widely available and lead to more reliable results. Hundreds of companies already use humane non-animal testing methods to ensure the safety of their cosmetics. The alternatives are more logical ways of conducting tests. Tests that is more accurate and less abusive to living creatures. Non-animal tests that are more reliable and less expensive do exist. However, animal testing cosmetics is still utilized by many companies. Since cosmetic are not required to be tested on animals and since alternatives exist, it is difficult to understand why companies continue to conduct these cruel tests. Institutional inertia seems to be at work, caused in part by technicians, researchers and industry legal departments that blindly cling to the customary but outdated methods of the past. It is important to understand that some companies make misleading claims about this complicated issue. A company that tests on animals may claim it no longer uses the certain tests, when in fact a very similar, equally cruel test is being performed under a different name. Also, some companies publicize they have put large amounts of money into efforts to find alternatives to animal testing. However, humane alternatives already exist and are being used by hundreds of companies to make safe and effective cosmetic products. So the next time you are strolling down the toiletries isle during your weekly grocery shopping trip, your eyes fall upon the newest brand of the volumizing shampoo you were searching for, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s on sale! DonÃ¢â¬â¢t envision yourself flaunting luscious locks of head-turning hair that create envious stares in your direction, and hurry to purchase the product.